"אתר הגיל הרך" אינו מספק מאמרים, שאלונים או כל חומר אחר מלבד אלה המתפרסמים באתר

השפעת אופן הגשת אביזרי משחק במעונות-יום על התנהגותם של פעוטות

חיבור לשם קבלת התואר "דוקטור לפילוסופיה"

ד"ר צילי שוחט shohetc@mail.biu.ac.il

בית הספר לחינוך אוניברסיטת בר-אילן 2005

תקציר
המטרה המרכזית של המחקר הנוכחי היתה לבדוק האם ניתן להשפיע על ההתנהגות החברתית ועל המשחק של ילדים בגיל 18 עד 30 חודשים, השוהים במעונות-יום, באמצעות אופן ההגשה של אביזרי המשחק.

נבדקה השפעתם של שני אופני הגשת אביזרי משחק: 1. הגשה אקראית, בה מבוגרים מגישים לילדים אוסף של אביזרי משחק, ללא ארגון מכוון וללא תוכנית ספציפית נראית לעין, המרמזת כיצד ניתן להמשיך בפעילות המשחקית עם אותם אביזרים; 2. הגשה מרמזת, בה מבוגרים מארגנים את אביזרי המשחק, באופן המרמז לילדים מהן אפשרויות המשחק הגלומות באותם אביזרים. אופן ארגון אביזרי המשחק בהגשה המרמזת יוצר עבור הילדים קונטקסט למשחק.

נושא מחקר זה צמח מתוך מחקר קודם שנערך ב- 20 מעונות-יום בארץ במסגרת הערכה של איכות הטיפול הניתן לתינוקות ופעוטות בישראל (קליין וגבעון, 2001; שוחט, 2000). אחת התובנות מתוך אותו מחקר היתה, כי מטפלות לא עשו שימוש מספיק בסביבה הפיזית כחלק מתכנית עבודתן עם הילדים. במרבית מעונות-היום, אביזרי המשחק הוגשו, על פי רוב, באופן אקראי, ללא תכנון וחשיבה נראים לעין לגבי המשך הפעילות של הילדים עם אותם אביזרים. לא היה ניסיון ברור מצד המטפלות ליצור עבור הילדים קונטקסט למשחק.

אחד החידושים במחקר הנוכחי, הוא ההתייחסות אל ההגשה המרמזת של אביזרי המשחק כאל תהליך של תיווך סמוי. כלומר, התנהגות הוראתית של מבוגר אשר איננה מתרחשת באינטראקצית פנים אל פנים עם הילדים, אלא משתקפת מתוך פעולות המבוגר, המארגן את אביזרי המשחק עבור הילדים. בתיווך הסמוי, המבוגר פעיל לפני הפעילות של הילדים בסביבה הפיזית ואילו במהלכה הוא צופה מהצד. מטרת התיווך הסמוי במחקר הנוכחי היתה ליצור עבור הילדים קונטקסט סביבתי, שיסייע להם ליזום ולקיים רצף של משחק ואינטראקציות חברתיות.

במחקרים קודמים הוכחה השפעת התיווך הישיר, כלומר המצב שבו המבוגר נמצא מול הילד ומנסה ללמד אותו ולהעביר לו חוויות וערכים, הן על הלמידה העכשווית של הילד והן על נטייתו ללמוד ממצבים חדשים (Klein, 1997, 1996, 1988). אולם, השפעת תיווך סמוי, דהיינו, ניסיון של המבוגר להשפיע על התנהגות ילדים, מבלי להיות מעורב באינטראקצית פנים אל פנים איתם, כגון, באמצעות אופן הצגת אביזרי משחק, לא נבדקה מספיק.

אחת ההנחות הבסיסיות של המחקר הנוכחי היתה, שניתן להשפיע על התנהגותם של תינוקות ופעוטות, גם באמצעות מאפייני הסביבה הפיזית בה הם מצויים. הדברים נכונים במיוחד כאשר מדובר בילדים צעירים מאוד, אשר מבלים חלק ניכר מזמנם באינטראקציה עם הסביבה הפיזית (David & Weintstein, 1987). במחקרים שנערכו לאורך שנים, זוהה הקונטקסט הסביבתי כגורם בעל השפעה הן על המשחק והן על הפעילות החברתית של ילדים צעירים (Eaton & Enns, 1986; Fein & Apfel, 1979). שני תחומי התנהגות אלה נבדקו במחקר הנוכחי. בתחום ההתנהגות החברתית נבדקה שכיחות ההתנהגויות החברתיות החיוביות והשליליות של הילדים. בתחום המשחק, נבדקו משך ושכיחות המשחק היחידני והחברתי (הלא דרמטי והדרמטי).

השערת המחקר היתה כי בעקבות הגשה מרמזת, שכיחות ההתנהגויות החברתיות החיוביות, וכן שכיחות ומשך המשחק יהיו גבוהים יותר בהשוואה להתנהגות הילדים בעקבות הגשה אקראית של אביזרי המשחק.

במחקר השתתפו 102 ילדים שנבחרו באקראי מ- 14 מעונות-יום ציבוריים במרכז הארץ. המדגם כלל קבוצה אחת של 48 ילדים, מגיל 18 חודשים ועד 24 חודשים, מכיתת התינוקות ו- 54 ילדים, מגיל 25 חודשים ועד 30 חודשים, מכיתת הפעוטות.
במהלך המחקר נבחרו באקראי קבוצות של ארבעה ילדים מכיתת התינוקות ומכיתת הפעוטות, בכל אחד מהמעונות אשר השתתפו במחקר. כל קבוצת ילדים צולמה בוידאו, בעת משחק עם אביזרי המשחק, אשר אורגנו מראש על ידי החוקרת. אביזרי המשחק אורגנו על פי אחד משני אופני ההגשה: הגשה אקראית או הגשה מרמזת.

הצילום נערך בתוך הכיתה, והתמקד בקבוצת ילדים אחת, בשעה ששאר הילדים נמצאו בחצר, או בפעילות אחרת מחוץ לחדר. הילדים צולמו בשעה שהכיתה היתה ריקה, על מנת למנוע רעשים וגירויים מיותרים, אשר יסיטו את תשומת לבם של הילדים הנצפים. כל קבוצת

ילדים צולמה פעמיים בעת משחק, פעם בעקבות הגשה אקראית ופעם בעקבות הגשה מרמזת. משך הצילום היה 30 דקות. צילום הילדים בוצע על ידי שתי חוקרות בו זמנית, באמצעות שתי מצלמות וידאו, שהותקנו על חצובות. הצילום נערך משתי זוויות שונות על מנת לכסות את כל השטח בו שיחקו הילדים.

ניתוח צילומי הוידאו במחקר הנוכחי נערך באמצעות מערכת ממוחשבת לאיסוף ולניתוח מידע תצפיתי "The Observer", אשר פותח על ידי חברת Noldus (The Observer, 2002). מערכת זו מאפשרת לחוקר לקדד ולנתח משתנים התנהגותיים שונים מתצפית מצולמת בוידאו, תוך כדי צפייה בה באמצעות המחשב. הקטע המצולם נצפה ברצף ומופסק לצורך קידוד בכל פעם שמופיעה בו התנהגות הנכללת ברשימת משתני המחקר. ה- Observer מאפשר לקדד בו זמנית את משך הופעת ההתנהגויות הנצפות, את שכיחותן ואת האופן שבו התרחשו.

ממצאי המחקר מצביעים על הבדלים מובהקים בהתנהגות החברתית ובמשחק של הילדים בעקבות החשיפה לשני אופני ההגשה של אביזרי המשחק. בתחום ההתנהגות החברתית נמצאו הבדלים בהתנהגותם של הפעוטות בהשוואה לזו של התינוקות. הפעוטות הראו יותר התנהגויות חברתיות חיוביות ופחות התנהגויות תוקפניות, בהשוואה להתנהגותם בעקבות ההגשה האקראית. לעומת זאת, שכיחות ההתנהגות התוקפנית בקרב התינוקות היתה גבוהה יותר בעקבות ההגשה המרמזת מאשר בעקבות ההגשה האקראית. בתחום המשחק נראה כי ההגשה המרמזת השפיעה הן על שכיחות והן על משך המשחק של התינוקות והפעוטות. נמצא כי שכיחות המשחק היחידני הדרמטי והמשחק החברתי הלא דרמטי היתה גבוהה יותר בעקבות ההגשה המרמזת. כמו כן, מממצאי המחקר עולה כי משך המשחק החברתי, הדרמטי והלא דרמטי היה ארוך יותר בעקבות ההגשה המרמזת.

למרות שממצאי מחקרים אחרים (Howes, 1992a; NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2000, 2001; Rosenthal, 1994a, 1994b) מצביעים על קשר בין איכות מעון-היום לבין התנהגות הילדים והתפתחותם, במחקר הנוכחי לא נמצא קשר בין איכות מעון-היום לבין התנהגות הילדים בעקבות אופן הגשת אביזרי המשחק.

עם זאת, ראוי לציין ממצא מעניין שהתקבל במחקר זה, הנוגע לאיכות מעון-היום, ללא קשר להשפעת אופן הגשת אביזרי המשחק. נמצא כי איכות הטיפול לו זוכים ילדים בכיתת התינוקות היא נמוכה יותר, מאיכות הטיפול לה זוכים ילדים מכיתת הפעוטות. ממצאים אלה עולים בקנה אחד עם ממצאי מחקרים אחרים שהתקבלו בארצות הברית (Burchinal, Roberts, Riggins, Zeisel, Neebe, & Brayant, 2000; Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study Team, 1995).

תרומתו המרכזית של המחקר הנוכחי היא בהשלכות הממצאים באשר לפוטנציאל ההשפעה של ארגון אביזרי המשחק באופן מרמז על התנהגותם של הילדים. ממצאי המחקר הצביעו על היתרון שבהגשה המרמזת על פני ההגשה האקראית, בעידוד אינטראקציות חברתיות בין עמיתים ובהעלאת שכיחות ומשך המשחק של ילדים.

חשיבותם היישומית של ממצאי המחקר הנוכחי, קשורה לפוטנציאל שיפור איכות הטיפול והחינוך הניתנים לתינוקות ולפעוטות במעונות-יום בישראל. השימוש בהגשה מרמזת של אביזרי משחק, כאסטרטגית עבודה עם ילדים במעונות-יום, עשוי להעשיר את אופן המשחק של ילדים ואת מורכבותו ולשמש כמנוף לפיתוח וקידום אינטראקציות חברתיות בין עמיתים.

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